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US, 9/11

The 9/11 terrorist attack. The US began to use sanctions more aggressively. Sanctions also became more targeted (early smart sanctions), but there was no Internet-specific sanction relief yet. The Internet had been commercialized but had not achieved its later ubiquity. The US tightened its sanctions on Afghanistan.

About The Author

Farzaneh Badii

Digital Medusa is a boutique advisory providing digital governance research and advocacy services. It is the brainchild of Farzaneh Badi[e]i.Digital Medusa’s mission is to provide objective and alternative digital governance narratives.